Aerobic Cometabolism of TCE and 1,4-Dioxane – Field Demonstration

In a pilot study to compare aerobic cometabolism with anaerobic reductive dechlorination  to remediation TCE and 1,4-dioxane at a former industrial facility in New Jersey, aerobic cometabolism reduced the concentrations of both compounds while anaerobic reductive dechlorination was unsuccessful.  For aerobic cometabolism, CL-Out microbes were injected into the aquifer to a depth of 60 to 90 feet below ground.  The pilot treatment area was 500 square feet.  Monitoring wells were placed upgradient, sidegradient and downgradient of the injection point.  Ground water samples were taken on a monthly basis for 9 months.

The results showed that complete TCE mineralization, without the production of daughter products, was measured within the first month.  CL-Out bioremediation removed 80% of the TCE at 40 feet downgradient in less than three months.  CL-Out bioremediation reduced the 1,4-dioxane concentration to below detection limits at 20 and 40 feet downgradient in the first month.

Click here to view a summary case study.



1,1,1-TCA Bioremediation at an Industrial Site in Dayton, Ohio

CL-Out bioremediation reduced the concentration of 1,1,1-TCA in ground water at a steel manufacturing facility in Dayton, Ohio. Following implementation of ozone treatment and high vacuum extraction for more than 2 years, the contaminant concentrations remained high.  Bioaugmentation followed up on these treatments and reduced the 1,1,1-TCA concentration very quickly.  Within 30 days of bioaugmentation, the source area contaminant concentration decreased by 80%.  After a second application, the concentration decreased from the pre-treatment concentration of 1,100 ug/L to 1.4 ug/L.  The bioaugmentation effect was observed as far as 250 feet downgradient where the concentrations decreased by more than 50%.  Click here for the full case study.



CL-Out Bioaugmentation Following ISCO to Remediate TCE

CL-Out bioremediation was used to remediate ground water at an active manufacturing plant in eastern Massachusetts after ISCO treatment of TCE in groundwater reached a limit.  CL-Out was selected because the aquifer was naturally aerobic.  CL-Out cometabolizes TCE and other chlorinated solvents under aerobic conditions by producing an oxygenase enzyme that breaks the carbon to carbon bond.  Under aerobic conditions daughter products such as DCE and vinyl chloride are not formed.  30 days after one application of CL-Out the TCE concentration was reduced by 97% and the site remediation goals were achieved. Click here to download the case study.

Keyhole Source Treatment to Remediate PCE in Ground Water Plume

CL-Out bioremediation was used in a keyhole treatment to remediate PCE.  The source treatment also reduced the mass of contamination down gradient in the plume.  At a former manufacturing facility in Ohio the concentration of PCE near the source was over 100,000 ug/L.  Down gradient of the source the PCE concentrations were less than 10% of the source concentration.  Aggressive treatment in the source area reduced the source concentration and in the down gradient plume.

After one treatment with CL-Out bioremediation, the concentrations decreased as follows:

PCE remediation from 120,000 to 12 ug/L.

TCE remediation from 2,000 to 12 ug/L

Cis 1,2-DCE remediation 9,500 to 8,100 ug/L.

Vinyl chloride, however, increased from 1,200 to 22,000 ug/L.

The vinyl chloride increased as the aggressive cometabolic treatment stimulated some incomplete reductive dechlorination.

Down gradient from the source, the concentrations decreased with slight to no increase in daughter products.  The following results were measured in the down gradient plume:

PCE remediation from 5,000 to 1,600 ug/L.

TCE remediation from 43 ug/L to BDL.

Cis 1,2-DCE remediation from 140 to 23 ug/L.

Vinyl chloride  was not detected before or after treatment.

Keyhole treatment was a cost effective approach to remediate  PCE and other contaminanats by focusing aggressive treatment on the source area.  Concentrations of PCE and other contaminants in the rest of the plume decreased as the microbes and treated water dispersed through the plume.


CL-Out Pilot Study Vandenberg AFB – successful aerobic cometabolism

A pilot study of the applicability of CL-Out aerobic cometabolism of PCE and other chlorinated solvents was completed at Vandenberg Air Force Base.  The pilot study consisted of injection in a single well and groundwater sampling at four surrounding wells to monitor the progress of bioremediation.  During the pilot study, samples were analyzed for the contaminants and breakdown products, microbial population, and dissolved oxygen.

After three months, sampling showed the following contaminant removal near the injection well:

PCE reduced from 44 to 2.6 ug/L.

TCE reduced from 330 to 57.3 ug/L.

Cis 1,2-DCE reduced from 30.7 to 6.2 ug/L.

Vinyl chloride was not detected before or after treatment.

The ground water stayed aerobic during the 90 day pilot study.  The CL-Out population reached a maximum of 9 million cells per milliliters 14 days after injection.  The  CL-Out population was maintained above background populations for at least 60 days and reached as far as 50 feet down gradient.

For more information about the pilot study results, contact CL Solutions.