In Situ CL-Out Bioremediation of Industrial Solvents

Case Study :

Industrial Manufacturing Site, Illinois

Remediation Summary

Leaks from an aboveground solvent tank impacted soil and ground water quality at a manufacturing site in Illinois.  The impact was found under the adjoining building as well as the area near the tank.  The soil and ground water were treated in situ with CL-Out® bioremediation microbes.  Through cometabolism CL-Out® microbes reduced the contaminant concentrations to acceptable levels in less than one year.

Contaminants Soil Results (mg/Kg) Ground Water Results (mg/L)
Pre-Treatment Post- Treatment Pre-Treatment Post- Treatment
PCE 41.8 1.69 5.59 0.006
TCE 4,670 632 15.6 0.026
Cis 1,2-DCE 171 56.6 7.43 0.029
Vinyl Chloride BDL BDL 0.095 0.013

Implementation and Results

Soil Type:  Silty clay till

Treatment Area:  15,000 sq. ft.

Unsaturated soil thickness:  16 ft.

Saturated aquifer thickness:  5 ft.

Treatment: Two applications, initial treatment with 13 units of CL-Out® and follow up treatment with 5 units.

Product Cost: $30,000

Conclusions

CL-Out® bioremediation quickly and cost-effectively reduced the contaminant concentrations to acceptable levels.  Through cometabolism the parent and daughter products were removed simultaneously.  CL-Out® bioaugmentation accelerated the site remediation and reduced uncertainty by applying the right microbes where they were needed.

Aerobic Cometabolism of PCE at an Industrial Site in Tampa, Florida

Project Summary

Degreasing solvents were found in the ground water at an industrial manufacturing facility in Tampa, Florida.  The solvents include PCE and its associated breakdown products. The source of the ground water contaminants was found to be a former water treatment system drain field.  CL-Out® bioremediation was implemented to reduce the volume of contamination in the source area and down gradient. CL-Out® is a consortium of Pseudomonas sp. that produces constitutive enzymes to cometabolize PCE and other halogenated solvents.  Dextrose is added with CL-Out® to provide a substrate for microbial growth.  Application of CL-Out® bioremediation at this site reduced the total chlorinated solvent concentrations as much as 99% in less than 6 months.

Geology and Hydrogeology

The site is located in Tampa, Florida where the geology is characteristically interbedded silt and sand.  The background ground water redox conditions of the aquifer are not known.

Contamination

The PCE and elevated concentrations of daughter products were found in ground water down gradient of the former drain field.  The PCE concentrations were as high as 280 µg/L and DCE concentrations were as high as 4,400 µg/L, which indicates that there was significant contaminant degradation occurring, but the natural degradation stalled at DCE.   Petroleum hydrocarbons were also present in the ground water and may have served as an oxygen sink during the degradation of the petroleum products.

Remediation Design

CL-Out bioremediation was implemented in the ground water to accelerate the remediation of the source area.  A 55-gallon slurry of  CL-Out was injected on February 11, 2003.

Monitoring wells in the source area and surrounding area were sampled to assess the progress of the remediation.   The following table shows the pre-treatment and post-treatment CVOC concentrations in a source area monitoring well (MW-1) near the application of CL-Out.

 Source Area (MW-1)

Sampling Date CVOC Concentrations (µg/L)
  PCE TCE DCE VC
3/28/02 280 750 4,400 BDL
12/19/02 86 120 1,100 BDL
2/11/03 CL-Out Injection
2/24/03 350 280 1,600 BDL
7/7/03 4.6 6.0 63 BDL

RESULTS

After application CL-Out bioaugmentation the chlorinated solvent concentrations in MW-1 decreased by as much as 99%.  Overall the total mass of contamination was significantly diminished by the bioaugmentation in a short period of time to accelerate the natural degradation.

PAH Bioremediation

The results of a recent bench-scale test confirmed the effectiveness of a special blend of CL Solutions’ microbes formulated for PAH bioremediation.  The test results showed that after two weeks, the total concentration of 15 PAH compounds decreased by 85% from a total of 358 mg/kg to 50.9 mg/kg.  Benzo(A)pyrene is often a most difficult PAH to remove. The test showed that the custom blend reduced the benzo(A)pyrene concentration from 24.5 mg/kg to 3.68 mg/kg.  Tests will continue to determine whether even greater effectiveness can be achieved over 30 days.

Perchlorate Remediation Receives Greener Cleanup Leadership Award

The Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection awarded Irwin Engineering of Natick, Massachusetts the 2016 Greener Cleanup Leadership Award for the innovative in situ bioremediation of perchorate contamination of soil and ground water at the Concord Road Site in Billerica, Massachusetts. The award honors LSPs and their clients for promoting greener cleanup principles and practices to reduce the overall net environmental footprint of hazardous waste site cleanup response actions under the Massachusetts Contingency Plan.

In addition to implementing best practices, Irwin Engineers was able to close the site at least 5 years sooner and saving their client over $5 million. The site cleanup achieved residential soil standards without site use limitations and achieved ground water levels protective of drinking water.

In-Situ Petroleum Bioremediation Rates With Petrox

Recent data from field applications of Petrox bioremediation show degradation rates of 100 to 500 micrograms per liter (ug/ml) per day. These degradation rates are for total petroleum hydrocarbons or total BTEX, depending on the site monitoring requirements.

Achieving high degradation rates requires high initial concentrations. Initial concentrations of 1,000 to 10,000 ug/l were used to develop these degradation rates.

At lower concentrations, the degradation rates depend on effective distribution of microbes for cell to contaminant contact. Secondly, desorption of petroleum constituents from submerged soil may cause rebound and suggest lower degradation rates. For these reasons we cannot calculate a degradation rate for petroleum at low concentrations.