Improve Soil Flushing and LNAPL Removal with Petrox EC

Petrox EC is a product that combines a surfactant with petroleum-degrading microbes to improve separate phase oil recovery and bioremediation of residual oil.  The combined approach improves the rate of oil removal from soil and other subsurface media and establishes a beneficial petroleum-degrading microbial population that will treat tightly bound or deeply penetrated oil.

Petrox EC has been used in combination with periodic LNAPL extraction by pumping or bailing.   In field applications the surfactant effect has increased the LNAPL recovery rate by more than 10 fold.

Petrox EC has also been used to improve the efficiency of air sparging by flushing oil from the sediment surface for sparging and vapor phase recovery.

Field Bioremediation Rates For Petroleum and Solvents

The success of bioaugmentation depends on effective distribution of the beneficial microbes.  If the target population is achieved, the remediation rate ranges from 50% to over 99% removal.  The rate appears to be independent of the contaminant starting concentrations.  This indepedence is the advantage of bioaugmentation.  Through bioaugmentation the density of beneficial organisms is sufficient for frequent reactions with high or low contaminant levels.  The following chart shows the results of a single application of bioaugmentation at 11 sites in different states, with different contaminants.

remediation rates with bioaugmentation


The chart also suggests that the results are not time dependent.  The apparent time independence may be because the reactions are completed early and because these were grid applications with the monitoring locations within the bioaugmented area instead of downgradient where the results would depend on dispersion rates.

Switching to In Situ Aerobic Cometabolism Saves Client $100,000s

By switching from active extraction to in situ CL-Out® bioremediation, In Control Technologies, Inc. of Houston, Texas saved their client $100,000s in on-going operation and maintenance costs.  The Site was a shopping center where soil and ground water were contaminated by dry cleaning chemicals.  A dual phase extraction system was installed and operated for 9 years.  The dual phase system reduced the total CVOCs by 70%, but the contaminant removal rate  reached the limit of cost effectiveness.

By switching to bioremediation, the client avoided $75,000 on-going annual operation and maintenance cost with a $20,000 investment in bioremediation. CL-Out® bioremediation reduced the residual contamination by more than 98% in less than 90 days.  This case study was reported at the 9th In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, 2007

Irwin Engineers, Inc., of Natick, Massachusetts has undertaken a similar approach to reduce on-going pump and treat remediation costs at a site of perchlorate contamination.  Irwin Engineering presented that case study at the AEHS Soils, Sediment, Water and Energy Conference (2013).

Research on Aerobic Cometabolism of PCE

Aerobic cometabolism of PCE and other halogenated solvents by Pseudomonas sp.  has been well established for more than 20 years.  The following research articles were key in the development of this approach to bioremediation.  This academic research provided parallel support to CL Solutions’ successful application of aerobic cometabolism to bioremediation of hundreds of contaminated sites since 1999.

Vandenbergh, P. A., and Kunka, B. S., Metabolism of Volatile Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 54, no. 10, Oct. 1988. p. 2578 – 2579.

Deckard, L. A., Willis, J. C., and Rivers, D. B. , Evidence for the Aerobic Degradation of Tetrachloroethylene by a Bacterial Isolate, Biotechnology Letters, v16, no. 11, November, 1994. p 1221-1224.

Ryoo, D., Shim, H., Canada, K., Barbieri, P., and Wood, T.K., Aerobic Degradation of Tetrachloroethylene by Toluene-O-xylene Monooxygenase of Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1, Nature Biotechnology, vol 18, July, 2000. p 775 – 778.

Shim, H., Ryoo, D., Barbieri, P, and Wood, T.K., Aerobic Degradation of Mixtures of Tetrachloroethylene, Trichloroethylene, Dichloroethylenes, and Vinyl Chloride by Toluene-O-Xylene Monooxygenase of Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1, Applied Microbiol Biotechnol, v. 56, May 2001. p 265-269.